Publications and Bibliography

The goal of the co-directors of The Fourth Expedition of Lachish is to produce timely preliminary reports and final reports of the excavation based on the pattern established at Khirbet Qeiyafa. Individual articles are assigned to various experts in the field by the directors. The volume is then edited and produced for camera-ready copy at Southern Adventist University. Subsequently it is printed and distributed through the Israel Exploration Society in Jerusalem.

The Fourth Expedition to Lachish

Sass, B., Y. Garfinkel, M. G. Hasel, and M. G. Klingbeil, "The Lachish Jar Sherd: An Early Alphabetic Inscription Discovered in 2014." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 374 (2015): 233-245.

Garfinkel, Y., M. G. Hasel, M. G. Klingbeil, “An End and a Beginning:  Why We Are Leaving Qeiyafa and Going to Lachish.” Biblical Archaeology Review 39/6 (November-December, 2013), 44-51.

Bibliography of Earlier Studies and Expedition

Identification

Albright, W. F. “The American Excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim.” Zeitschrift für die Alttesetamentilche Wissenschaft 6/47 (1929): 1-18.

Ahlström, G. W. “Is Tell Ed-Duweir Ancient Lachish?” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 112 (1980): 7-9.

——— “Tell Ed-Duweir: Lachish or Libnah?” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 115 (1983): 103-104.

——— “Lachish: Still a Problem.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 117 (1985): 97-99.

Davies, G. I. “Tell Ed-Duweir = Ancient Lachish: A Response to G. W. Ahlström.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 114 (1982): 25-28.

——— “Tell Ed-Duweir: Not Libnah But Lachish.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 117 (1985): 92-96.

Thomas, D. W. “The Site of Ancient Lachish: The Evidence of Ostrakon IV from Tell ed-Duweir.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 72 (1940): 148-149.

Maps and Surveys

Dagan, Y. Map of Lachish (98). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority Publications, 1992.

History

Albright, W. F. “Further Light on the History of Israel from Lachish and Megiddo.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 68 (1937): 22-26.

——— “A Reexamination of the Lachish Letters.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 73 (1939): 16-21.

——— “The Israelite Conquest of Canaan in the Light of Archaeology.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 74 (1939): 11-23.

——— “A Case of Lèse-Majesté in Pre-Israelite Lachish, with Some Remarks on the Israelite Conquest.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 87 (1942): 32-38.

Fritz, V. “The ‘List of Rehoboam’s Fortresses’ in 2 Chr. 11:5-12 – A Document from the Time of Josiah.” Eretz-Israel 15 (1981): 46*-53*.

Harding, G. L. Guide to Lachish, Tell ed Duweir. Jerusalem: Commercial press, 1943.

Na’aman, N. N. “Sennacherib's Campaign to Judah and the Date of the LMLK Stamps.” Vetus Testamentum 29 (1979): 61-86.

——— “Hezekiah's Fortified Cities and the LMLK Stamps.”Bulletin for the American Schools of Research 261 (1986): 5-21.

Tufnell, O. 1959. “Hazor, Samaria and Lachish.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 91 (1959): 90-105.

Excavations

Albright, W. F. Review of Lachish III, by Olga Tufnell. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 132 (1953): 46-47.

Aharoni, Y. “Trial Excavation in the ‘Solar Shrine’ at Lachish.” Preliminary report. Israel Exploration Journal 18 (1968): 157-169.

——— “Excavations in the ‘Solar Temple’ at Lachish.” Qadmoniot 4 (1969): 131-134.

——— Investigations at Lachish: The Sanctuary and the Residency (Lachish V). Tel Aviv: Gateway Publishers, Inc., 1975.

Buchanan, B. W. Review of Lachish III, The Iron Age, by Olga Tufnell. American Journal of Archaeology 58 (1954): 335-339.

Dothan, T. Review of Lachish IV, by Olga Tufnell. Israel Exploration Journal 10 (1960): 58-63.

Inge, C. H. “Excavations at Tell Ed-Duweir: The Wellcome Marston Archaeological Research Expedition to the Near East.”Palestine Exploration Quarterly 70 (1938): 240-256.

Kent, F. “Excavations at Old Lachish.” The Old and New Testament Student 15 (1892): 235-240.

Starkey, J. L. “A Lecture Delivered at the Rooms of the Palestine Exploration Fund, on June 22nd, 1933.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 65 (1933): 190-199.

——— “Excavations at Tell Ed-Duweir: 1933-1934. Wellcome Archaeological Research Expedition to the Near East.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 66 (1934): 164-175.

——— “Excavations at Tell Ed-Duweir 1934-1935 Wellcome Archaeological Research Expedition to the Near East.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 67 (1935): 198-207.

——— “Excavations at Tell Ed-Duweir, 1935-6.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 68 (1936): 178-189.

——— “Lachish as Illustrating Bible History.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 69 (1937): 171-179.

——— “Excavations at Tell Ed-Duweir: The Wellcome Marston Archaeological Research Expedition to the Near East.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 69 (1937): 228-241.

Torczyner. H. et al., Lachish I, The Lachish Letters. London: Oxford University Press, 1938.

Tufnell, O. et al., Lachish II, The Fosse Temple. London: Oxford University Press, 1940.

——— Lachish III, The Iron Age.London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

——— Lachish IV, The Bronze Age.London: Oxford University Press, 1958.

Tufnell, O. “’Reminiscences of Excavations at Lachish.’ An address delivered by Olga Tufnell at Lachish on July 6, 1983.” Tel Aviv 12 (1985): 3-8.

Ussishkin, D. The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish, Volume I. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2004.

 ——— The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish, Volume II. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2004.

——— The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish, Volume III. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2004.

 ——— The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish, Volume IV. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2004.

——— The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish, Volume V. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, 2004.

——— “Excavations at Tel Lachish – 1973–1977: Preliminary Report.” Tel Aviv 5 (1978): 1-97.

 ——— “Excavations at Tel Lachish 1978—1983: Second Preliminary Report.” Tel Aviv 10 (1983): 97-175.

Ussishkin, D. “Lachish.” In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land 3, edited by Ephraim Stern et al., 897-911. Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society & Carta, 1993.

Studies and finds

Aharoni, Y. “The ‘Persian Fortress’ at Lachish—An Assyrian Palace?” Yediot 31 (1967): 80-91.

Aharoni, Y. “The Incense Altar of Lachish.” Leshonenu 35 (1971): 3-6. (Hebrew).

Barkay, G. “A Balance Beam from Tel Lachish.” Tel Aviv 23 (1996): 75-82.

Barkay, G., and Vaughn, A.G. “An official seal impression from Lachish reconsidered.” Tel Aviv 22 (1995): 94-97.

——— "Lmlk and official seal impressions from Tel Lachish.” Tel Aviv 23 (1996): 61-74.

Barnett, R. D. “The Siege of Lachish.” Israel Exploration Journal 8 (1958): 161-164.

——— “Lachish, Ashkelon and the Camel: a discussion of its use in Southern Palestine.”In Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages: Papers in Honour of Olga Tufnell, edited by Jonathan N. Tubb, 15-30. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 1985.

Bartlett, J. R. “The Seal of Hnh from the Neighbourhood of Tell Ed-Duweir.” Palestine Exploration Journal 108 (1976): 59-61.

Ben-Arieh, I. “Land-use in the Lachish area: a pioneer region of the semiarid fringe of Israel.” Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society 28 (1964): 77-96.

Ben-Arieh, S., Ben-Tor, D., and Godovitz, S. “A Late Bronze Age burial cave at Qubeibeh, near Tel Lachish.” ‘Atiqot 22 (1993):77-89.

Bietak, M. “The Function of Some Architectural Roots of the Fosse Temple at Lachish.” In Aharon Kepinski Memorial Volume. Studies in Archaeology and Related Disciplines, edited by Eliezer D. Oren, and Shmuel Ahituv, Vol. 15 of Beer-Sheva, 56-85. Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 2002.

Clamer, C.  “A Gold Plaque from Tel Lachish.” Tel Aviv 7 (1980): 152-162.

——— “A Middle Bronze Age pottery boot from Tel Lachish.” In Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages: Papers in Honour of Olga Tufnell, edited by Jonathan N. Tubb, 50-56. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 1985.

Cross, F. M., Jr. 1985. “A Literate soldier: Lachish Letter III.” In Biblical and Related Studies Presented to Samuel Iwry, edited by Ann Kort, and Scott Morschauer, 41-47. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1985.

Dever, William G. “Commentary: Of Myths and Methods.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 277-278 (1990): 121-130.

Drori, I. "Tel Lachish: Subsistence and Natural Environment During the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze and Iron Age Periods." PhD diss., MA thesis, Tel Aviv University, 1979. (Hebrew).

Drori, I., and A. Horowitz. “Tel Lachish: Environment and Subsistence during the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze and Iron Ages.” Tel Aviv 15-16 (1988): 206-211.

Eph’al, I.  “The Assyrian Siege Ramp at Lachish: Military and Lexical Aspects.” Tel Aviv 11 (1984): 60-70.

Feldman, S. “Return to Lachish.” Biblical Archaeology Review 28/03 (May-June 2002), 46-51.

Gittlen, B. M. "Form and function in the new Late Bronze age temple at Lachish." Eretz-Israel 16 (1982): 67*-69*.

Greitzer, Y. “On the Geology of the Lakhish Area, Israel.” Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel 9 (1960): 109-128.

Hestrin, R. “Understanding Asherah: Exploring Semitic Iconography.” Biblical Archaeology Review 17/5 (October-September 1991): 50-59.

Isserlin B. S. J., and O. Tufnell. “The City Deposits at Tell Ed-Duweir a Summary of the Stratification.” Palestine Excavation Quarterly 82 (1950): 81-91.

Keita, S. O. Y. "An analysis of crania from Tell‐Duweir using multiple discriminant functions." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 75/3 (1988): 375-390.

Keith, A. 1940. “The men of Lachish.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly. pp. 7-12.

King, P. “Why Lachish Matters: A Major Site Gets the Publication It Deserves.” Biblical Archaeology Review 31/04 (July-August 2005): 36-47.

Krauss, R. “Ein wahrscheinlicher Terminus post quem fur das Ende von Lachisch VI.” Mitteilungen der Deutchen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 126 (1994):123-130.

Maeir, A. “The ‘Judahite’ Swords from the Lachish Reliefs of Sennacherib.” Eretz-Israel 25 (1996): 210-214.

Magrill, P. “Review article: the social life of pots.” Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society 9 (1989-1990): 41-45.

Mozel, I. “A reconstructed sickle from Lachish.” Tel Aviv 10 (1983): 182-185.

Na’aman, N. N. “The contribution of the Trojan Grey Ware from Lachish and Tel Miqne-Ekron to the chronology of the Philistine Monochrome pottery.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research317 (1979): 1-7.

Risdon, D. L. “A Study of the Cranial and Other Human Remains From Palestine Excavated at Tell Duweir (Lachish) by the Wellcome-Marston Archaeological Research Expedition.” Biometrika 35 (1939): 99-166.

Rosen, S. A. “Pottery Neolithic Flint Artifacts from Tel Lachish.” Tel Aviv 15 (1988): 193-196.

Schniedewind, W. M. “Sociolinguistic Reflections on the Letter of a ‘Literate’ Soldier (Lachish 3).” Zeitschrift fur Althebraistik 13 (2000): 157-166.

Shalev, S., and Peter Northover. “A cast Bronze Door Hinge from Tel Lachish: An Archaeometallurgical Study.” Tel Aviv 15 (1988): 197-205.

Shiloh, Y. “Judah and Jerusalem in the Eighth-Sixth Centuries BCE.” In Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology, edited by Seymour Gitin, and William G. Dever. Vol. 49 of Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 97-105, Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1989.

Stern, E. “Note on a Decorated Limestone Altar from Lachish.” ‘Atiqot 11 (1976): 107-109.

Tufnell, O. “Hazor, Samaria and Lachish: A Synthesis.”Palestine Excavation Quarterly 91 (1959): 90-105.

——— “Lachish.” In Archaeology and the Old Testament Study. Jubilee Volume of the Society for Old Testament Study 1917-1967, edited by Thomas D. Winton, 296-308. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Uehlinger, C. “Clio in a World of Pictures – Another Look at the Lachish Reliefs from Sennacherib’s Southwest Palace at Nineveh.” In ‘Like a Bird in a Cage’: The Invasion of Sennacherib in 701 BCE, edited by Lester L. Grabbe, 221-305. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003.

Ussishkin, D. “Royal Judean Storage Jars and Private Seal Impressions.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 223 (1976): 1-13.

“’Lamelekh’ Store-Jars and the Excavations at Lachish.” Qadmoniyot 9 (1976): 63-68. (Hebrew).

——— “The Destruction of Lachish by Sennacherib and the Dating of the Royal Judean Storage Jars.” Tel Aviv 4 (1977): 28-60.

——— “Answers at Lachish.” Biblical Archaeology Review 05/6 (November-December 1979): 16-39.

——— “The ‘Lachish Reliefs’ and the city of Lachish.” Israel Exploration Journal 30 (1980): 174-195.

——— The Conquest of Lachish by Sennacherib. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 1982.

——— “Levels VII and VI at Tel Lachish and the End of the Late Bronze Age in Canaan.” In Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages: Papers in Honour of Olga Tufnell, edited by Jonathan N. Tubb, 213-230. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 1982.

——— “News from the Field: Defensive Judean Counter-Ramp Found at Lachish in 1983 Season.” Biblical Archaeology Review 10/2 (March-April 1984): 66-73.

——— “Lachish - Key to the Israelite Conquest of Canaan?” Biblical Archaeology Review 13/1 (January-February 1987): 18-39.

——— “Restoring the Great Gate at Lachish.” Biblical Archaeology Review 14/2 (May-April, 1988): 42-47.

——— “The Level V Sanctuary and High Place at Lachish.” In den Hertog, C. G., Hübner, U. and Münger, S. (eds.) Saxa loquentur: Studien zur Archäologie Palästinas/Israels. Festschrift für Volkmar Fritz zum 65. Gerburtstag, pp. 205-211. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 302. Münster: Ugarit Verlag, 2003.

——— “Symbols of Conquest in Sennacherib’s Reliefs of Lachish: Impaled Prisoners and Booty.” In Culture Through Objects: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of P.R.S. Moorey, edited by Timothy Potts, Michael Roaf, and Diana Stein, 207-218. London: Oxford University Press, 2003.

——— “The Assyrian attack on Lachish: the archaeological evidence from the southwest corner of the site.” Tel Aviv 17 (1990): 53-86.

Weippert, M. “Lachis, A. Philologisch,” Reallexikon der Assyriologie 6 (1980-83): 412-413.

Wightman, G. J.  “The Myth of Solomon.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 277-278 (1990): 5-22.

Wright, G. E. Review of Lachish III: The Iron Age, by Olga Tufnell. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 14 (1955): 188-189.

Yadin, Y. “The Mystery of the Unexplained Chain.” Biblical Archaeology Review 10/4 (July-August 1984): 65-67.

Zimhoni, O. “The Iron Age pottery of Tel ‘Eton and its relation to the Lachish, Tel Beit Mirsim and Arad assemblages.” Tel Aviv 12 (1985): 63-90.

——— “Two Ceramics Assemblages from Lachish Levels III and II.” Tel Aviv 17 (1990): 3-52.

Inscriptions

Albright, W. F. “A Supplement to Jeremiah: The Lachish Ostraca.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 61 (1936): 10-16.

Barstad, H. M. “Lachish Ostracon III and ancient Israelite prophecy.” Eretz-Israel 24 (1993): 8*-12*.

Begin, Z. B., and Grushka, A. “Where was Ostracon Lachish-4 written?” Eretz-Israel 26 (1999): 13-24. (Hebrew).

——— As We Do Not See Azeqa. The Source of the Lachish Letters. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 2000. (Hebrew).

——— “Does Lachish Letter 4 Contradict Jeremiah XXXIV 7?” Vetus Testamentum 52 (2002): 166-174.

Borowski, O. “Yadin Presents New Interpretation of the Famous Lachish Letters.” Biblical Archaeology Review, 10/2 (March-April 1984): 74-77.

Burrows, M. “I Have Written on the Door (Lachish Letter IV).” Journal of the American Oriental Society. 56/4 (December 1936): 491- 493.

Cross, F. M. “Lachish Letter IV.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 144 (1956): 24-26.

 ——— “An Old Canaanite Inscription Recently Found at Lachish.” Tel Aviv 11 (1984): 71-76.

De Vaux, R. 1939. “Les ostraka de Lachis.” Revue Biblique 48 (1939): 181-206.

Diringer, D. "On ancient Hebrew inscriptions discovered at Tell Ed-Duweir (Lachish)–I." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 73 (1941): 38-56.

——— "On ancient Hebrew inscriptions discovered at Tell Ed-Duweir (Lachish)-II." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 73 (1941): 89-109.

——— "The Early Hebrew Weights Found at Lachish." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 74 (1942): 82-103.

——— "On Hebrew Inscriptions Discovered at Tell Ed-Duweir (Lachish)—III." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 75 (1943): 89-99.

Emerton, J. A. "Were the Lachish Letters Sent to or From Lachish?" Palestine Exploration Quarterly 133 (2001): 2-15.

Gilula, M. “An Inscription in Egyptian Hieratic from Lachish.” Tel Aviv 3 (1976): 107-108.

Goldwasser, O. “The Lachish Hieratic Bowl Once Again.” Tel Aviv 9 (1982): 137-138.

——— “Hieratic Inscriptions from Tel Sera in Southern Canaan.” Tel Aviv 11 (1984): 77-93.

——— “An Egyptian Scribe from Lachish and the Hieratic Tradition of the Hebrew Kingdoms.” Tel Aviv 18 (1991): 248-253.

Lehmann, R. G. “Brief oder Botschafter? Eine kontextuelle Annäherung an Lachish Ostrakon 2 und 5.” In Bote und Brief, edited by A. Wagner, 75-101. Bern, 2003.

Lemaire, A. ” Un nouveau roi arabe de Qedar dans l'inscription de l'autel à encens de Lakish.”Revue Biblique 81 (1974): 63-72.

——— “A Schoolboy’s Exercise on the Ostracon at Lachish.” Tel Aviv 3 (1976): 109-110.

——— “A Note on Inscription XXX from Lachish.” Tel Aviv 7 (1980): 92-94.

——— “Les ostraca.” In Inscriptions hebraiques 1. Paris: (1977):83-143.

Puech, E. “The Canaanite Inscriptions of Lachish and Their Religious Background.” Tel Aviv 13-14 (1986-7): 13-25.

Rainey, A. "Watching out for the signal fires of Lachish." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 119 (1987): 149-151.

Smelik, K. A. D. "The Riddle of Tobiah's Document: Difficulties in the Interpretation of Lachish III, 19-21." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 122 (1990): 133-138.

Ussishkin, D. “A Proto-Canaanite inscription recently discovered at Tel Lachish.” Eretz-Israel 18 (1985): 88-89. (Hebrew).

Yadin, Y. “The Lachish Letters—Original or Copies and Draft?” In Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Israel, edited by B. Mazar.  Jerusalem:  Biblical Archaeology Society, 1984, pp. 179-186.