This is an archival study investigating HIV treatment adherence rates and the possible demographic variables that could be related to them. Forty-nine patients, ages 24-70, enrolled in HIV therapy in Lesotho, Africa, were analyzed to see whether gender, age, and number of opportunistic infections had any relationship to their treatment adherence. No significant relationships were found between the demographic variables and treatment adherence. However, adherence rates for women were found to be significantly higher than expected. This study is a first step toward an understanding of the demographic trends of the HIV pandemic in Lesotho and raises questions about adherence in other populations. Future research endeavors should include qualitative investigations, an analysis of the demographics of those patients who drop out of treatment, and an examination of adherence rates in patients who are deceased.